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September 15, 2021


Groupers are Teleosts. Grouper fish belong to the family Serranidae and are one of the most commercially important food fishes and sold live in the market, unlike other fishes sold chilled or frozen. The scientific name is Epinephelinae.


Grouper fish are primarily present in warm seas and rocky habitats. They are present in coral reefs in the tropical and subtropical areas around the World. 

Physical Characteristics:

  • Heavy and stout body and a largemouth.

  • The color is greens or browns with bright and bold patterns.

  • They are heavyweight and can weigh up to 880 pounds.

  • Being larger, they may reach a length up to one meter

  • The jaws' edges are without teeth, so they are adapted to swallow the prey rather than biting it into pieces. 

  • The pharynx is modified with heavy tooth plates for crushing.

  • Enlarged canine-like teeth are also common in some species. 

  • The gills and mouth are modified to form the vacuum that pulls their prey from a distance.


They ordinarily eat fish, octopus, red lionfish, and crustaceans. Groupers prefer to ambush their prey. Grouper fish are heavy body carnivores


Groupers mature as females and can change their sex after maturity. Grouper fish are hermaphrodite. First, they function as females and then transform into males.

Some groupers are gonochoristic. It is a reproductive strategy with two different sexs. 


Groupers usually harbor parasites such as

  • Digeneans

  • Nematodes

  • Isopods

  • Cestodes

  • Monogeneans

  • Copepods

Grouper species :

The grouper has at least 161 species. Some of them are,

  • E. itajara is the large grouper (goliath grouper)

  • E. nigritus (warsaw grouper)

  • Grammistes sexlineatus (golden-striped grouper)

  • E. morio (red grouper)

  • E. adscensionis (rock hind)


  • Groupers are important for food.

  • Grouper are a source of Ciguatera fish poisoning.

  • Some of the species are sea angling species, and some of them are kept in the aquaria.

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